Thrombophlebitis Forum

Thrombophlebitis: Superficial vs Migratory, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment Superficial Thrombophlebitis: Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Diagnosis


Superficial Thrombophlebitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

May 15, Thrombophlebitis Forum, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described Thrombophlebitis Forum the penis and the breast Mondor disease.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external Thrombophlebitis Forum vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.

See Etiology, Presentation, Thrombophlebitis Forum, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive Krampfadern Schlamm attention in medical and surgical textbooks.

However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, Thrombophlebitis Forum, although it is usually a benign, Thrombophlebitis Forum, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation.

See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous akute Thrombophlebitis Behandlung und Diagnosethrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system, Thrombophlebitis Forum.

Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well as to recurrent pulmonary Thrombophlebitis Forum PE and an increased risk of death. Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical interventions.

Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or Thrombophlebitis Forumstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability. In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling.

Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in Creme verbirgt Krampfadern lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.

See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.

Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, Thrombophlebitis Forum, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.

In the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis Forum, Thrombophlebitis Forum vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation. The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site. Thrombophlebitis Forum platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin.

A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below, Thrombophlebitis Forum. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin.

This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis Forum, where platelet aggregation is mediated via Thrombophlebitis gesehen, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very Thrombophlebitis Forum in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.

The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis Forum, DVT, and PE. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans. The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery.

This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, Thrombophlebitis Forum, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.

High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor. Case-controlled and cohort Thrombophlebitis Forum based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low.

Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.

Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs Thrombophlebitis Forum the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered, Thrombophlebitis Forum.

Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.

It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the main saphenous vein, Thrombophlebitis Forum. Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause.

Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers.

Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats Thrombophlebitis Forum that dormant infection in varicose veins Thrombophlebitis Forum a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring Thrombophlebitis Forum operations or after injection treatments, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy, Thrombophlebitis Forum. Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline.

Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis indetermining it to Krampfadern als grüne Tomate behandeln an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity.

Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed, Thrombophlebitis Forum. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, Thrombophlebitis Forum, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas. Mondor disease is a rare condition.

Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in bei varicosity Probe region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium. A Thrombophlebitis Forum finding is a tender, Thrombophlebitis Forum, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm.

The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated. Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with protein C deficiency.

Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, Thrombophlebitis Forum, is also referred to as Mondor disease. In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to middle age. However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 Thrombophlebitis Forum, though fewer complications occur in this age group, Thrombophlebitis Forum.

As previously mentioned, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy Thrombophlebitis Forum recognized risk factors for phlebitis. However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease, Thrombophlebitis Forum.

The prognosis in superficial Thrombophlebitis Forum is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, Thrombophlebitis Forum, although it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein.

However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it Thrombophlebitis Forum in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed.

Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable. The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, Thrombophlebitis Forum, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods.

Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With Thrombophlebitis Forum reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.

Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and Thrombophlebitis Forum. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis.

Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:


I Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis of other and unspecified deep vessels of lower extremities. I Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis of unspecified deep vessels of.

Join now to donate your data …for you, for others, for good. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a blood clot in a vein located just below the skin's surface due to injury or recent use of an intravenous IV line or catheter, Thrombophlebitis Forum.

The site will appear reddened, swollen, and tender. What will we do next? How do people experience each condition differently, and why? What improves health and life for different people, and why?

How can we measure that improvement faster and more effectively, and accelerate clinical trials? You have already helped us learn: Lithium carbonate wasn't helping ALS patients, and we learned Thrombophlebitis Forum faster than the clinical trials Thrombophlebitis Forum. Read about it in Nature. Insomnia is more common—in fact worse—for people with chronic in einem Bad bei Varizen. Read about it on the blog.

Interacting with other PatientsLikeMe members improves your health. Read it on healthaffairs. The severity of Parkinson's Disease symptoms changes faster than researchers thought, so clinical trials Thrombophlebitis Forum be designed differently. Read about it on JMIR. What people are taking for it. Amphetamine-Dextroamphetamine Folic Acid Lisdexamfetamine, Thrombophlebitis Forum. We ask about general symptoms anxious mood, depressed mood, fatigue, pain, Thrombophlebitis Forum, and stress regardless of condition.

How many have tried, Thrombophlebitis Forum. See all 16 treatments. Data from patients with superficial thrombophlebitis, who reported starting treatments within the last 5 years. Major Moderate Slight None Can't tell. Severe Moderate Mild None. Sex Distribution of sex. These charts show Thrombophlebitis Forum from superficial thrombophlebitis patients who have completed their condition history.

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Superficial Thrombophlebitis - Case Study

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